On the Origin of Indian Logic from the Viewpoint of the Pāli Canon

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kirtu
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On the Origin of Indian Logic from the Viewpoint of the Pāli Canon

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An open access article from Logica Universalis, On the Origin of Indian Logic from the Viewpoint of the Pāli Canon, by Andrew Shumann, Department of Cognitive Science and Intelligent Systems, University of Information Technology and Management in Rzeszow.
Abstract

In this paper, I show that in the Pāli Canon there was a tradition of Buddhist logic, but this tradition was weak, and the proto-logic we can reconstruct on the basis of the early Pāli texts can be evaluated as a predecessor of the Hindu logic. According to the textual analysis of the Pāli texts, we can claim that at the time of the closing of the Pāli Canon (excluding the later addition of the Milindapañha into it by the Burmese tradition) there did not exist the Nyāya philosophy known by the Nyāya Sūtra. Meanwhile, we can assume that the Milindapañha, the best logical source of early Pāli literature, was written under influences of the Gandhāran Buddhists and this text preceded the Nyāya philosophy.
Introduction

This paper provides an argument supporting the claim that the authors of the Pali Canon and Milindapanha did not know about the Nyaya school of logic and knew nothing about syllogisms defined in the Nyaya Sutra (Sect. 2). The methodology for this conclusion is discussed in Sect. 3.
8. Conclusions

As a result of the structuralist analysis of logical competence in early Pali literature, the following statements can be inferred:
1. In the Pali Canon there was a tradition of Buddhist logic, but this tradition was weak, and the proto-logic, we can reconstruct on the basis
of the Pali texts by means of the historical reconstructive hermeneutics, can be evaluated as a predecessor of the nyaya and yogacara
logic.
2. At the time of the Pali Canon there did not exist the nyaya philosophy known by the Nyaya Sutra.
3. The Milindapanha, the best logical source of the Pali Canon, can have been written under a direct influence of the Greco-Buddhists.
4. From the viewpoint of the Pali Canon, the origin of Indian logic is connected to the community that the author of the Milindapanha belonged
to, and this community was Greco-Buddhist. Therefore, we can claim that the first correct application of inference rules in the early Indian
logic may be explained by a Gandharan influence.
Kirt's Tibetan Translation Notes

"Even if you practice only for an hour a day with faith and inspiration, good qualities will steadily increase. Regular practice makes it easy to transform your mind. From seeing only relative truth, you will eventually reach a profound certainty in the meaning of absolute truth."
Kyabje Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche.

"Only you can make your mind beautiful."
HH Chetsang Rinpoche
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Aemilius
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Re: On the Origin of Indian Logic from the Viewpoint of the Pāli Canon

Post by Aemilius »

There is an important work in this field that knows a lot more about the early Buddhist, Jain, Ajivaka and other schools of logic in India:

"Kulatissa Nanda Jayatilleke (1 November 1920 – 23 July 1970) was an internationally recognised authority on Buddhist philosophy whose book Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge has been described as "an outstanding philosophical interpretation of the Buddha's teaching" in the Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Jayatilleke is best known as the author of the book Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge, Perhaps the Greatest Book written by a Sri Lankan in the 20th Century a work that has been described as a "masterpiece", and as "an outstanding contribution to the history of Indian philosophy". This book traces the beginnings of ideas relating to the theory of knowledge in pre-Buddhist Indian thought and their development in early Buddhism. It consists of a comprehensive inquiry into the nature of knowledge and the questions relating to the means and limits of knowledge.The book attempts to work out a general methodology for answering questions that arise in the context of profound and sophisticated philosophical discussions, and attempts to show that the Buddha was an empiricist and verificationist who denied the meaningfulness of metaphysical utterances. Jayatilleke describes his book as an "attempt to uncover the epistemological foundations of Pali Canonical thought, from a new point of view and in the light of new material." His basic contentions were that early Buddhism has an empiricist outlook, gives a significant place to the analytic approach in philosophy, and does not contradict the findings of modern science. Jayatilleke was a student of Ludwig Wittgenstein, and a teacher of the famous Buddhist scholar, David Kalupahana."

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http://www.ahandfulofleaves.org/documen ... illeke.pdf
svaha
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Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 1. (in english and sanskrit)
Bristollad
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Re: On the Origin of Indian Logic from the Viewpoint of the Pāli Canon

Post by Bristollad »

So India learned valid inference from the Greeks... the paper's interesting and detailed but I wasn't convinced to accept this conclusion.
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kirtu
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Re: On the Origin of Indian Logic from the Viewpoint of the Pāli Canon

Post by kirtu »

Bristollad wrote: Thu Jan 14, 2021 10:40 am So India learned valid inference from the Greeks... the paper's interesting and detailed but I wasn't convinced to accept this conclusion.
I wasn't convinced either. Nonetheless the structuralist analysis of the application of logic might be useful.

Kirt
Kirt's Tibetan Translation Notes

"Even if you practice only for an hour a day with faith and inspiration, good qualities will steadily increase. Regular practice makes it easy to transform your mind. From seeing only relative truth, you will eventually reach a profound certainty in the meaning of absolute truth."
Kyabje Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche.

"Only you can make your mind beautiful."
HH Chetsang Rinpoche
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