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Pali word of the day - Page 16 - Dhamma Wheel

Pali word of the day

Explore the ancient language of the Tipitaka and Theravāda commentaries

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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Thu Sep 09, 2010 1:49 pm



[m.; nt.] 1. a part; a side; 2. shoulder.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Sat Sep 11, 2010 3:58 am



'world of suffering', is another name for the 4 woeful courses; duggati, see: gati of existence, and for the 4 lower worlds apaya.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Sat Sep 11, 2010 3:00 pm



[nt.] shoulder strap.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Sun Sep 12, 2010 3:48 pm



discipline; the code of monastic discipline; removal.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Mon Sep 13, 2010 10:14 pm



[nt.] shoulder.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Tue Sep 14, 2010 2:17 pm



‘The Path of Freedom’
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Tue Sep 14, 2010 2:19 pm



freedom, 'deliverance', is of 2 kinds: deliverance of mind; ceto-vimutti and deliverance through understanding.

'Deliverance of mind', in the highest sense, is that kind of concentration samādhi which is bound up with the path of Arahatship arahatta-magga deliverance through understanding' is the knowledge ñāna bound up with the fruition of Arahatship arahatta-phala Cf. A. V, 142.

There are also 5 kinds of deliverance, identical with the 5 kinds of overcoming; pahana.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Tue Sep 14, 2010 2:20 pm



'liberation' deliverance.

I. The 3 liberations are: 1. the conditionless or signless liberation animitta-v 2. the desireless liberation apanihita-v. the emptiness or void liberation suññatā -v They are also called 'the triple gateway to liberation' vimokkha-mukha Vis.M XXI, 66ff, as they are three different approaches to the paths of Nobility. - See visuddhi VI, 8. Cf. Vis XXI, 6ff, 121ff; Pts.M. II. Vimokkha-Kathā.

1. Whosoever being filled with determination adhimokkha, considers all constructions as impermanent anicca such a one attains the conditionless liberation. 2. Whosoever being filled with tranquillity, considers all constructions as painful dukkha such a one attains the desireless liberation. 3. Whosoever being filled with understanding, considers all constructions as without a self anattā such a one attains the emptiness liberation; Vis.M XXI, 70 = Pts.M. II, p. 58.

1 and 2 are mentioned and explained in M. 43, under the name of deliverances of mind ceto-vimutti. - 2 and 3 appear in Dhs 344ff, 353ff in the section on supra-mundane consciousness see Atthasālini Tr., p. 299ff.

II. The 8 liberations attha vimokkha occur frequently in the texts A. VIII, 66; D. 16, etc. and are described as follows:

There are 8 liberations, o Bhikkhus. Which are these?

1. Whilst remaining in the fine-material sphere rūpī one perceives material forms: this is the first liberation.

2. Not perceiving corporcal forms on one's own person, one perceives corporcal forms externally: this is the 2nd liberation.

3. By thinking of the beautiful, one is filled with confidence: this is the 3rd liberation.

4. Through the total overcoming of the materiality-perceptions, the vanishing of the reflex-perceptions, and the non-attention to the multiformity-perceptions, with the idea 'Unbounded is space', one reaches the sphere of unbounded space ākāsānañcāyatana and abides therein: this is the 4th liberation.

5. Through the total overcoming of the sphere of unbounded space, and with the idea 'Unbounded is consciousness', one reaches the sphere of unbounded consciousness viññānañcāyatana and abides therein: this is the 5th liberation.

6. Through the total overcoming of the sphere of unbounded consciousness, and with the idea 'Nothing is there', one reaches the sphere of nothingness ākiñeaññāyatana and abides therein: this is the 6th liberation.

7. Through the total overcoming of the sphere of nothingness, one reaches the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception n'eva-saññā -nāsaññāyatana and abides therein: this is the 7th liberation.

8. Through the total overcoming of the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, one reaches the ceasing of perception and feeling see: nirodha-samāpatti this is the 8th liberation.

These, o Bhikkhus, are the 8 kinds of liberation

For 1-3, see: abhibhāyatana for 4-7, see: jhāna for 8, see: nir odha-samāpatti.

By 3 is meant the attainment of the fine-material absorptions jhāna by means of concentrating the mind on perfectly pure and bright colours as objects of the kasina. According to Pts.M. this mental state is produced also by concentrating the mind on the 4 sublime states, i.e. all-embracing kindness, Pity, sympathetic joy and equanimity, in consequence of which allbeings appear perfectly pure and glorified, and thus the mind turns to the beautiful.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Wed Sep 15, 2010 4:43 pm



ray of light; a fibre.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Wed Sep 15, 2010 4:44 pm



[nt.] cloth
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Thu Sep 16, 2010 3:33 pm



is a Buddhist scripture, the sixth book of the Khuddaka Nikaya in the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism. Its name is Pali for "Vimana Stories". The Vimanavatthu is an anthology of 85 short stories written in verse. The stories are similar to each other in that each of them describes the life and deeds of a character who has attained residence in a heavenly mansion, the "Vimana", due to his/her meritorious deeds.

Typically the beings in these happy realms are described as having beautiful and ornate clothing.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Thu Sep 16, 2010 3:36 pm



investigation, inquiry, pondering', is one of the 4 roads to power iddhi-pāda and one of the 4 factors of predominance.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Fri Sep 17, 2010 2:05 pm



[m.] the sun.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Sat Sep 18, 2010 3:25 pm



'abode' There are 3 abodes: the divine abode dibba-vihāra the divine abode Brahma Viharas, the noble abode ariya-vihāra See A. III, 63; D. 33.

It can also refer to a monastery or temple, the abode for bhikkhus and bhikkhunis.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Sat Sep 18, 2010 3:26 pm



'discursive thinking'
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Sun Sep 19, 2010 3:26 pm



Freedom from covetousness, jealously and envy = unselfishness.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Mon Sep 20, 2010 2:27 pm



'Doctrine of Analysis'

The Buddha did not call his followers Buddhists and in fact in at least one instance recommended that Buddhism be called vibhajjavada, which means “doctrine of analysis.” The followers would be called vibhajjavadins, which would basically mean “analysts” or “those who analyze.”

The Buddha’s teachings are focused on the Noble Eightfold Middle Path which is characterized by Morality, Concentration, and Wisdom. All three are cultivated in the 8 fold path. There are many schools of Buddhism and many varieties all of which emphasize different aspects in practice, such as chanting, meditation, bodhisattva ideal, and prostrations.

The Theravada places a balance between the different types of practice with about an equal importance given to all the types including chanting / prayer (such as loving kindness prayers), meditation, generosity and helping others, and reading / studying and analyzing. Contrary to some belief, the Theravada does include an emphasis on compassion, generosity, and helping others, including aiding them in their attainments. There is just more of an equal footing given to individual attainments along with helping others and the other practices mentioned here.

The Theravada also acknowledges that progress on the Path is gradual, which is supportive of the gradual training involved with meditation and study. In the Pali Canon, Majjhima Nikaya, Kiagiri Sutta 70.22 the Buddha says:

Bhikkhus, I do not say that the final knowledge is achieved all at once. On the contrary, final knowledge is achieved by gradual training, by gradual practice, gradual progress.”

The Buddha further talks about studying the dhamma, following the dhamma, having faith or confidence in the teachings by hearing it and memorizing some of it, and practicing it. In Majjhima Nikaya Subha Sutta 99.4 the Buddha says, “I am one who speaks after making an analysis.”

In Majjhima Nikaya Ganakamoggalaha Sutta 107.3 the Buddha states, “It is possible, Brahmin, to describe gradual training, gradual practice, and gradual progress in this Dhamma and Disciplne.”

In several places the Buddha talks about making an investigation. Even the parts that refer to faith or confidence in the Buddha (as an enlightened one) or in the teachings, are only after an investigation of the teachings to see if they are good and make sense.

“Here, bhikkhus, when he makes a thorough investigation, a bhikkhu thoroughly investigates thus: ‘The many diverse kinds of suffering that arise in the world headed by aging-and-death: what is the source of this suffering, what is its origin, from what is it born and produced? When what exists does aging-and-death come to be? When what does not exist does aging-and-death come to be?’” Samyutta Nikaya 12.51

Upali lived during the time of Buddha and was the follower of another religion and went to the Buddha in order to argue with him and try to convert him. But after talking to the Buddha, he was so impressed that he decided to become a follower of the Buddha. But the Buddha said:

“Make a proper investigation first. Proper investigation is good for a well-known person like yourself.

Now I am even more pleased and satisfied when the Lord says to me: 'Make a proper investigation first.' For if members of another religion had secured me as a discipline they would have paraded a banner all around the town saying: 'Upali has joined our religion.' But the Lord says to me: Make a proper investigation first. Proper investigation is good for a well-known person like yourself." Majjhima Nikaya 2.379

The fifth part or book of the Samyutta Nikaya goes into detail about the 37 aids to enlightenment (which is like an outline of the way to enlightenment) and the most common mental factors found according to the lists and Buddhaghosa in the Visuddhimagga (Path of Purification) are investigation, mindfulness, and wisdom. This further shows the supremacy of completing an analysis and attaining wisdom in the Buddha’s religion and a rejection of blind faith.

The Vibhajjavada school says that the first step to insight has to be achieved by the aspirant's experience, critical investigation, and reasoning instead of by blind faith. This school was introduced to Sri Lanka by the Venerable Mahinda, son of Emperor Ashoka, who brought with him the Pali Canon. Vibhajjavada is an ancestor of the school known today as Theravada.

In one discourse, the Buddha emphasizes the importance of meditation and study:

“There are dhamma-experts who praise only monks who are also dhamma-experts but not those who are meditators. And there are meditators who praise only those monks who are also meditators but not those who are dhamma-experts. Thereby neither of them will be pleased, and they will not be practicing for the welfare and happiness of the multitude, for the good of the multitude, for the welfare and happiness of devas and humans.” Anguttara Nikaya 4.46 The Buddha goes on to praise both dhamma-study and meditation. To this day, there are some groups who disparage the other, while in fact both study and meditation are important and praised by the Buddha.

The Theravada can be seen as the foundation of Buddhism with its origin to the time of Buddha and the equal importance given to all forms of practice. The other schools of Buddhism are not wrong and in fact are on the Path to enlightenment in the same way, they just emphasize different characteristics of the foundation more and specialize in one or more forms of practice, but do not reject the foundation.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Tue Sep 21, 2010 3:37 pm



The Non-Returner is a Noble Disciple Ariya-puggala on the 3rd stage of Nobility.

An anagami (non-returner) has completely eradicated the first five hindrances of the 10 hindrances to enlightenment and never returns to earth or any other world system (planet, solar system). Such a person is re-born to a heavenly realm and attains enlightenment from there.

There are 5 classes of Non-Returners, as it is said e.g. Pug. 42-46:

A being, through the disappearing of the 5 lower mental chains samyojana, reappears in a higher world amongst the devas of the Pure Abodes, suddhāvāsa, and without returning from that world into the sense-sphere, he there reaches Nibbāna.

1. He may, immediately after appearing there in the Pure Abodes or before half of the life-time, attain the Noble path for the overcoming of the higher mental chains. Such a being is called one who reaches Nibbāna within the first half of the life antarā-parinibbāyī.

2. Or, while living more than half of the lifetime there, or at the moment of death, he attains the Noble path for the overcoming of the higher mental chains. Such a being is called one who reaches Nibbāna after crossing half the life-time upahacca-parinibbāyī.

3. Or, with effort he attains the Noble path for the overcoming of the higher mental chains. Such a being is called one who reaches Nibbāna with exertion sasankhāra-parinibbāyī.

4. Or, without effort he attains the Noble path for the overcoming of the higher mental chains. Such a being is called one who reaches Nibbāna without exertion asankhāra-parinibbāyī.

5. Or, after vanishing from the heaven of the Aviha-gods see: suddhāvāsa, he appears in the heaven of the unworried atappa gods. After vanishing from there he appears in the heaven of the clearly-visible sudassa gods, from there in the heaven of the clear-visioned sudassī gods, from there in the heaven of the highest akanittha gods. There he attains the Noble path for the overcoming of the higher mental chains. Such a being is called one who passes up-stream to the highest gods uddhamsota-akanittha-gāmī.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Wed Sep 22, 2010 2:21 pm



'self-confidence' of a Buddha is fourfold. He is confident: 1. to have attained to a perfect Enlightenment of which it cannot be said that it omits anything essential to it; 2. to have destroyed all fermentations (Asava) leaving none that can be said to be undestroyed by him; 3. that what were declared by him as obstacles to liberation are undeniably such; 4. that his teaching fulfils its purpose of actually leading to final liberation from suffering. See A. IV, 8; VII, 58; M. 12.
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Re: Pali word of the day

Postby David N. Snyder » Thu Sep 23, 2010 2:27 pm



(Pali: anāgārika; lit., "homeless one") is a term used in Theravada Buddhism to refer to a lay attendant of a monk. Or it can refer to a lay person who has taken the 8 precepts for a long term commitment, i.e., for the rest of his/her life. The monastic rules or Vinaya restrict monks from many tasks that might be needed, including the use of money, or driving to another location, so lay attendants help bridge this gap. All anagarika take the 8 precepts, and often have the intention of becoming monks at a later point, though not always.
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