Concepts so often get in the way.
I think it is vitally important to step back and realise that the only thing between our present experience and enlightenment is ignorance.
Not being fully aware, not seeing clearly, being distracted, attaching.
In a state of clear awareness dukkha can be experienced as subtly as not being aware of a single instant arising and passing away.
A minute 'not knowing' that causes the clear mind to agitate ever so slightly.
This is Samsara, this is Dukkha, just as sure as birth, disease, old age and death, albeit at a very different magnitude.
And on rebirth.
We as Buddhists need to train our awareness to the present. The future is by definition not known and therefore bound up in ignorance (perhaps not for more enlightened beings, so excuse me if this doesn't apply to you).
By practising the path we can all be aware of past lives and how they condition our present experience.
If we are mindful of, and develop equanimity toward our old patterns they eventually burn up and, in my experience, leave a very clear impression of cause.
The old patterns can go back a very, very long way, and we as Dhamma practitioners have the means to eradicate them, all of them.
Did the Buddha say something like "the past has gone, the future is unknown"?
And the Kalama Sutta give an instructive discourse on what should be believed.
The gift of the Dhamma excels all gifts (DP354)