Buddhism is "the middle way" so you wouldn't expect to find fundamentalists, but like any human organization, there are going be some imperfections. There have been what could be called "fundamentalists" who hold rigidly to the literal words in the suttas/sutras often to the detriment of Buddhism.
A recent example is over the bhikkhuni issue in Theravada and the bhikkshuni issue in Tibetan Buddhism. For some, it has been felt that the female nun lineage cannot be reinstated since there are no female nuns to ordain the new novices. But this is mistaken when considering that the Dharmaguptaka line has remained unbroken and nuns from that lineage can be used (and in fact have been used and today there are over 1,000 Theravada and Tibetan nuns). But some of the more literal interpreters of the sutras and Vinaya feel that these ordinations are invalid.
see also: Bhikkhuni ordination
19. “Much though he recites the sacred texts, but acts not accordingly, that heedless man is like a cowherd who only counts the cows of others — he does not partake of the blessings of the holy life.
20. Little though he recites the sacred texts, but puts the Teaching into practice, forsaking lust, hatred, and delusion, with true wisdom and emancipated mind, clinging to nothing of this or any other world — he indeed partakes of the blessings of a holy life.”
The Buddha, Dhammapada verses 19-20