I always see my mind located inside my brain. I think this comes from having a western scientific education where mental functions are understood to be in the brain. Sometimes I do experience thoughts as being in front of my forehead, but for the most part I envision them in the brain. I feel kind of stuck here.
That is interesting. Reflecting on my own sitting practice, I am aware of thoughts passing through the mind, and also aware that this involves neural activity. Actually when the mind quietens right down, the amount of neural activity is considerably less. That has been shown by many studies of meditator's brain activities. I think there is something called an 'alpha-wave pattern' associated with meditative states.
But at the same time, from what you are saying, I think there is a strong element of visualization in your case. It is like you are visualizing the brain producing thoughts. There is nothing the matter with that, but I think it likely that this is a 'construction' or a 'vikalpa'. That is, because of your pre-disposition to accept the notion of the equivalence between brain-states and thoughts, that is what you are seeing. You're imagining the brain thinking and in that sense 'constructing' that activity.
The deeper question is, what is actually doing the seeing or constructing? I wouldn't necessarily try and answer that verbally, otherwise it might be more of the same kind of thing. I would treat it like an open question, something to ponder rather than a question to which there is an unambiguous answer. That would be my suggestion.