I would like to draw some attention to the following piece of artwork from Dunhuang. It is "Tejaprabhā Buddha and the Five Planets" from Qianning 乾寧四年 (897 CE) 熾盛光佛并五星圖 by Zhang Huai Xing 張淮興. The planets as depicted here are largely identical to what is described in the astrological text the Brahma Horanavagraha
梵天火羅九曜. I incidentally wrote a blog post about all this here
. Here's the painting:
Now what's really interesting about this is how it reflects the astrology of the Brahma Horanavagraha
, which also introduces the Indian "shadow planets" of Rāhu and Ketu (there are nine graha or luminaries are the five visible planets, sun, moon and the two shadow planets), though they're not depicted here (possibly due to damage or they might have been omitted).
This is a really beautiful example of Indian-Chinese syncretism during the Tang Dynasty.