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The way to Nirvana - Dhamma Wheel

The way to Nirvana

General discussion of issues related to Theravada Meditation, e.g. meditation postures, developing a regular sitting practice, skillfully relating to difficulties and hindrances, etc.
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The way to Nirvana

Postby starter » Fri Mar 04, 2011 2:29 am

Hello Teachers/Friends,

Many thanks for all your Dhamma dana!

After reading the teachings of the Buddha on Nirvana [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/thanissaro/nirvanaverb.html], I came to the understanding that Nirvana is the emptiness [empty of fabrications/acquisitions/cravings/attachments], the stillness, and the freedom [free from becomings/births and annihilations/deaths] of the "consciousness"/"mind" (the 'pabhassara citta': the unestablished "consciousness"? the luminous/radiant/pure "consciousness"/"mind" without incoming defilements? ). When the "consciousness" ("mind") is in such emptiness and stillness after being released from assavas/fetters and five aggregates, it’s empty, boundless [unconfined in capacity] and lucid in quality, untraceable by the beings in the worlds because there are no activities of the "consciousness" dependent on name and form to be detected, and it's impossible for the beings to reach/know such unconditioned, transcendental "consciousness", like the fish doesn't reach/know the land.

Then it appears to me that Nirvana is probably not the annihilation of this unestablished "consciousness", but only the stilling of the activities of the "consciousness" (so called consciousness aggregate is not really the consciousness itself but only its activities). In Nirvana, the four elements do not really “cease without remainder”, but rather have no footing on the consciousness – the consciousness does not partake of them [MN 49]; “There the stars do not shine, the sun is not visible, the moon does not appear, darkness is not found” (Ud 1.10), ‘long & short, coarse & fine, fair & foul, name & form [or subject & object]’ are all brought to an end’”. How ? -- "with the cessation of (sense-)consciousness, each is here brought to an end” [DN 11].

Therefore it appears that the "luminous/lucid all around consciousness" is not really in another dimension, but could be everywhere in our dimension; it’s through the stilling of the consciousness (the cessation of sense-consciousness or the aggregate of consciousness) all the above-mentioned conditioned dhammas are brought to an end, and also through the stilling of the consciousness it neither has a base to become “established” nor is "in search of a place to be born", so it’s free from birth and death.

[b]It seems to me that the Buddha's way to Nirvana is through the stilling of the consciousness [via the cessation of aggregate consciousness] (finally, after virtues - samadhi - insight - ending of assavas - ending of five aggregates).

It appears to me that Master Huineng's way to Nirvana (?) is more like the wisdom liberation type, through contemplating the real nature (pure mind) to abandon the assavas/fetters, and reach non- subjectivity/objectivity and non- relativity/duality. But without discriminating nirvana and samsara, without abandoning the five aggregates (births and deaths), can one really reach nirvana?

Your input/comments would be most appreciated.

Metta to all,

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Re: The way to Nirvana

Postby ajahndoe » Fri Mar 04, 2011 4:16 am

Nirvana is seeing that craving and attachment (clinging) leads to suffering.
Nirvana is seeing that all things are impermanent.
Nirvana is seeing that all things are not-self, related and interdependent but of no self-essence.
Nirvana is seeing that all things arise from conditions, are supported by conditions, and fall away when conditions merit.

Nirvana is not a place, not a time, not an attainment.

Nirvana is the non-clinging mind, exactly opposite of the clinging mind that is called Samsara.

This is the only reason we can not know what Nirvana is without seeing it directly. The mind conditioned by
ignorance is a mind of craving, of attachment/clinging, and finds no lasting peace.

Nirvana is the perfection of Right View, where the mind is released of clinging and any reason to crave for
sense pleasures, existence and non-existence. It is clarity of the nature of all phenomena, the epitome of wisdom
and compassion.

Direct your mind toward Nirvana by understanding and following the Noble Eightfold Path. Through skillful karma
does one generate the wholesome conditions that lead to Awakening.

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Re: The way to Nirvana

Postby starter » Sun Mar 06, 2011 8:30 pm

Just read something nice to share with the friends:

“Body, mind and essence are all distinct and separate realities. Absolutely everything is known — earth, water, fire and wind; body, feeling, memory, thought and consciousness; sounds, sights, smells, tastes, touches and emotions; anger, greed and delusion — all are known. I know them all as they exist — in their own natural states. But no matter how much I am exposed to them, I am unable to detect even an instant when they have any power
over my heart. They arise, they cease. They are forever changing. But the presence that knows them never changes for an instant. It is forever unborn and undying. This is the end of all suffering.

Rivers flow inexorably towards the sea, each with its own name and state of being. Once emptied into the vast ocean, however, the waters merge into one essential element and the rivers lose their individual identities. The river water is still there but it no longer has separate characteristics [“self”] apart from the ocean. River and ocean are neither the same, nor are they different. In a similar way, Mae Chee Kaew’s pure essence of being had merged into the boundless ocean of Nibbāna. The essence was the same; it had not changed. But it was indistinguishable from Nibbāna’s essential element of pure Dhamma. And just as the river water cannot reunite with the stream, so the merged essence of mind can no longer link with past moments of consciousness that give birth to the illusion of self continuity. Living in the timeless present, devoid of past and future, the essence does not reap the fruits of old kamma or sow the seeds of new kamma. It no longer leaves the slightest trace to mark its existence."

-- "Mae Chee Kaew – Her Journey to Spiritual Awakening & Enlightenment" --http://www.forestdhammabooks.com/

The above description made me understand that there's only one nibbana -- the unchangable peace of the "heart", which doesn't seem to depend upon the cessation of the consciousness but rather the cessation of conceit ("I"-making / "Mine"-making, or subjectivity-objectivity).

I'm a bit puzzled by the following speach of Ajahn Maha Boowa:

"On 27 September 2005, Manager Daily published a sermon by Luang Ta Maha Bua. The sermon was extremely critical of Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. Especially controversial were the following quotes:

"They complained to me about PM Thaksin and Mr. Visanu and two other people that I don’t remember. This is the big ogre, big power. Atrocious power will swallow our country, bite liver and lungs and aim for the presidency....He will put a torch to the country. He will never listen....This savagery and atrocity appear in every aspect of him.... All he has are things to be used for burning."

"He is clearly aiming for the presidency now. The monarch trampled, the religion trampled, the country trampled, by this savage and atrocious power in a few people in the government circle. That is the circle of ogres, of ghosts, of trolls, of demons, all in there....So even Devadatta saw the harm he caused, and he was rewarded for his good deed. He would attain Buddhahood. For those who have made mistakes, if we see the harm we cause, we can still get by. But what is it with Thailand? What kind of governance?"

"They even dare to accuse Luangta Maha Bua of playing politics. Politics, what dog shit. There’s only shit all over the country. I brought the Buddha’s dharma to cleanse in order for them to repent and recognize good and evil. Because they’re the government. The world flatters them as smart people, but don’t be smart down in a toilet. Don’t be smart about putting a torch to the head of everyone in the country, from Nation, Religion, and Monarchy on down. These guys will get burned unless they recognize the truth. I’m saddened by all this. How does this come about?"" -- Wikipedia

Can arahants still suffer from sadness and anger?

By the way, thanks ajahndoe and all the other friends who have been helping me. Metta to all,

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Re: The way to Nirvana

Postby kirk5a » Sun Mar 06, 2011 9:45 pm

"When one thing is practiced & pursued, ignorance is abandoned, clear knowing arises, the conceit 'I am' is abandoned, latent tendencies are uprooted, fetters are abandoned. Which one thing? Mindfulness immersed in the body." -AN 1.230

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Re: The way to Nirvana

Postby Freawaru » Mon Mar 07, 2011 10:03 am


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Re: The way to Nirvana

Postby Freawaru » Mon Mar 07, 2011 10:30 am

Hi Starter,

Experiencing (percieving/sanna) nibbana is actually not as unusual as one might think. Nibbana, sometimes translated as "unbinding" is a state like jhana (except that it is unconditioned) and can be experienced by everybody. The difference of it leading to enlightenment or not is whether it is "perceived" or "directly known".

The MN 1: Mūlapariyāyasutta - Discourse on the Root Sequence

http://www.dhammavinaya.com/sutta/mn/1.html

describes this difference between puthujjana (translated as "uninstructed run-of-the-mill person") and a "trainee" (bhikkhu sekkho) regarding the arising of different states. The puthujjana "perceives" whatever is there and the bhikkhu sekkho "knows directly" whatever is there and even the Tathagata "knows directly" whatever is there. Thus the practice of mindfulness is more important than the reaching of nibbana itself. I guess one can wait for nibbana to sooner or later arise spontaneously once ones mindfulness is stabilised.

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Re: The way to Nirvana

Postby rowyourboat » Mon Mar 07, 2011 6:34 pm

Hi Starter,

Panna-vimutti does not suggest that that arahanth has not attained at least the first jhana (see Right Concentration).

Ceto-vimutti (in a Buddhist context) is for those arahanths who have the ability to get to the 8th jhana -and beyond.

with metta

Matheesha
With Metta

Karuna
Mudita
& Upekkha

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Re: The way to Nirvana

Postby starter » Wed Mar 09, 2011 9:48 pm

Hm, I think the following discussion suits this thread better, so I move it here and revise it:

Hi thanks for all the helpful input.

beeblebrox wrote:I think that we should be careful about drawing inference when there might be none. The Buddha is simply saying that the citta itself is luminous, and that it will shine forth when there are no defilements. That is what makes it possible for the monks to study it, and make progress... but not for the uninstructed run-of-mill person, because his is still obstructed.
:anjali:

-- I thought the Buddha warned us that we first have to realize the pure nature of the mind "as it actually is" which is only defiled by the "incoming defilements", before we can actually develop it. Otherwise the ignorance of the truth of the original pure mind will obstruct our practice. The Buddha also defined in MN 1 the trainee as the ones who know nibbana as nibbana, not those who don't know nibbana -- does "know nibbana" in MN1 mean "truly understand nibbana" instead of "directly experience nibbana"?

To me, when we have completely purified our mind from the "incoming defilements", we reach nibbana -- the original pure mind which is all-around pure emptiness without form or limit [in its capacity], free from becomings & annihilations and yet could generate all dhammas. When we see this, we see the Buddhas.

Metta,

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Re: The way to Nirvana

Postby Goedert » Tue Mar 15, 2011 12:49 am


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Re: The way to Nirvana

Postby starter » Sat Apr 30, 2011 6:37 pm

"It seems to me that the Buddha's way to Nirvana is through the stilling of the consciousness. But I'm a bit confused now about the liberation of those through wisdom/insight who didn't attain the cessation of perception and feeling. How can their consciousness reach stillness at death?"

-- I think I've found the answer now. The stilling of the "consciousness" is achieved through the ending of assavas (cleansing of defilements) and hence the ending of the five aggregates [freeing from birth and death (i.e. freeing from the sankharas)] including the cessation of sense-consciousness (but not the cessation of 'pabhassara citta' - the unestablished consciousness or pure "mind" without incoming defilements), not through the cessation of perception/feeling/awareness, or cessation of sankharas/awarenss ("pitch-black emptiness") in this very life. Therefore the "consciousness" of those who are liberated through wisdom/insight with no attainment of the sphere of cessation of perception & feeling are also able to reach stillness (the deathless) upon parinibbana, because they'll have no more sankharas (finally, after virtues - samadhi - insight - ending of assavas - nibbana: ending of birth and death and hence ending of five aggregates).

Please see another thread "Sense-consciousness vs. heart/mind/consciousness" [ viewtopic.php?f=13&t=8164&p=128091#p128091 ] for relevant discussion if interested.

Just to share with you about my thoughts. Your comments are welcome.

Metta to all,

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Re: The way to Nirvana

Postby starter » Mon May 02, 2011 11:33 pm


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Re: The way to Nirvana

Postby nyanasuci » Sun May 08, 2011 7:43 am

Bhikkhu Hiriko - Ñāṇasuci

The experts do not say that one is a sage in this world because of view, or learning, or knowledge, Nanda.
I call them sages who wander without association, without affliction, without desire.

The Buddha, Sn.V.8.2 (1078)


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Re: The way to Nirvana

Postby starter » Sun May 08, 2011 5:28 pm

Hello Bhante,

Many thanks for your helpful post. Just to help the Dhamma friends here, would you please give us the link of that article (Ajahn Thanissaro's)?

Metta to all,

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Re: The way to Nirvana

Postby nyanasuci » Sun May 08, 2011 7:38 pm

Actually I was refering the article you mentioned above. It is http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/auth ... averb.html I am sorry I was not clear.

And this link might be useful too: http://nanavira.xtreemhost.com/index.ph ... &Itemid=74
Bhikkhu Hiriko - Ñāṇasuci

The experts do not say that one is a sage in this world because of view, or learning, or knowledge, Nanda.
I call them sages who wander without association, without affliction, without desire.

The Buddha, Sn.V.8.2 (1078)


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Re: The way to Nirvana

Postby Alex123 » Mon May 09, 2011 12:30 am

"Life is a struggle. Life will throw curveballs at you, it will humble you, it will attempt to break you down. And just when you think things are starting to look up, life will smack you back down with ruthless indifference..."

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Re: The way to Nirvana

Postby rowyourboat » Mon May 09, 2011 11:22 am

With Metta

Karuna
Mudita
& Upekkha

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Re: The way to Nirvana

Postby starter » Mon May 09, 2011 4:28 pm

Hi thanks for all the input.

"Also if they thought there was something outside they 5 aggregates, within our experience, there would no attainment of sammasana nana (one of the nanas on the path to stream entry)."

--Indeed the unconditioned is not "within our experience". Let's not call the unconditioned as the 'pabhassara citta' (the unestablished "consciousness" or pure "mind" devoid of defilements and five aggregates), but just as the unconditioned to avoid confusions. To my understanding, the suttas used the word viññāṇa for different designations, including the sense-consciousness (or the aggregate of consciousness) and the unestablished consciousness (appatiṭṭha viññāṇa) which is unconditioned. Concerning the unestablished consciousness (appatiṭṭha viññāṇa), let's read the relevant suttas:

SN 22.53 Upaya Sutta:
"If a monk abandons passion for the property of form... feeling... perception... fabrications... [aggregate-]consciousness, then owing to the abandonment of passion, the support is cut off, and there is no base for consciousness. Consciousness, thus unestablished, not proliferating, not performing any function, is released. Owing to its release, it is steady. Owing to its steadiness, it is contented. Owing to its contentment, it is not agitated. Not agitated, he (the monk) is totally unbound right within. He discerns that 'Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for this world.'"

SN 12.64:
"Just as if there were a roofed house or a roofed hall having windows on the north, the south, or the east. When the sun rises, and a ray has entered by way of the window, where does it land?"

"On the western wall, lord."

"And if there is no western wall, where does it land?"

"On the ground, lord."

"And if there is no ground, where does it land?"

"On the water, lord."

"And if there is no water, where does it land?"

"It does not land, lord."

"In the same way, where there is no passion for the nutriment of physical food ... contact ... intellectual intention ... consciousness, where there is no delight, no craving, then consciousness does not land there or grow. Where consciousness does not land or grow, name-&-form does not alight. Where name-&-form does not alight, there is no growth of fabrications. Where there is no growth of fabrications, there is no production of renewed becoming in the future. Where there is no production of renewed becoming in the future, there is no future birth, aging, & death. That, I tell you, has no sorrow, affliction, or despair."

MN 49 Brahma-nimantanika Sutta:
"'Having directly known the all as the all, and having directly known the extent of what has not been experienced through the allness of the all [nibbana], I wasn't the all, I wasn't in the all, I wasn't apart from the all, I wasn't "The all is mine." ...

"Consciousness without surface [viññāṇaṃ anidassanaṃ], without end, luminous all around, does not partake of the solidity of earth, the liquidity of water, the radiance of fire, the windiness of wind, the divinity of devas [and so on through a list of the various levels of godhood to] the allness of the All."

DN 11:
"Consciousness without surface, without end, luminous all around: Here water, earth, fire, & wind have no footing. Here long & short coarse & fine fair & foul name & form are all brought to an end. With the cessation of [fabrications of] consciousness each is here brought to an end.

SN 22.87: [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/thanissaro/nirvanaverb.html]
"That is Mara, the Evil One. He is searching for the consciousness of Vakkali the clansman: "Where is the consciousness of Vakkali the clansman established?" But, monks, it is through unestablished consciousness that Vakkali the clansman has become totally unbound."

Ven. Ñāṇananda, Nibbāna Sermon 07:
"Now viññāṇaṃ anidassanaṃ is a reference to the nature of the released consciousness of an arahant. It does not reflect anything. To be more precise, it does not reflect a nāma-rūpa, or name-and-form. An ordinary individual sees a nāma-rūpa, when he reflects, which he calls 'I' and 'mine'. It is like the reflection of that dog, which sees its own delusive reflection in the water. A non-arahant, upon reflection, sees name-and-form, which however he mistakes to be his self. With the notion of 'I' and 'mine' he falls into delusion with regard to it. But the arahant's consciousness is an unestablished consciousness.

We have already mentioned in previous sermons about the established consciousness and the unestablished consciousness. A non-arahant's consciousness is established on name-and-form. The unestablished consciousness is that which is free from name-and-form and is unestablished on name-and-form. The established consciousness, upon reflection, reflects name-and-form, on which it is established, whereas the unestablished consciousness does not find a name-and-form as a reality. The arahant has no attachments or entanglements in regard to name-and-form. In short, it is a sort of penetration of name-and-form, without getting entangled in it. This is how we have to unravel the meaning of the expression anidassana viññāṇa."

MN 72:
"But, Master Gotama, the monk whose mind is thus released: Where does he reappear? ... when Master Gotama is asked if the monk reappears... does not reappear... both does & does not reappear... neither does nor does not reappear, he says, '... doesn't apply' in each case." ... "Deep, Vaccha, is this phenomenon [Nibbana], hard to see, hard to realize, tranquil, refined, beyond the scope of conjecture, subtle, to-be-experienced by the wise. For those with other views, other practices, other satisfactions, other aims, other teachers, it is difficult to know." ...

"And suppose someone were to ask you, 'This fire that has gone out in front of you, in which direction from here has it gone? East? West? North? Or south?' Thus asked, how would you reply?"

"That doesn't apply, Master Gotama. Any fire burning dependent on a sustenance of grass & timber, being unnourished — from having consumed that sustenance and not being offered any other — is classified simply as 'out' (unbound)."

"Even so, Vaccha, any physical form by which one describing the Tathagata would describe him: That the Tathagata has abandoned, its root destroyed, made like a palmyra stump, deprived of the conditions of development, not destined for future arising. Freed from the classification of form, Vaccha, the Tathagata is deep, boundless, hard to fathom, like the sea. 'Reappears' doesn't apply. 'Does not reappear' doesn't apply. 'Both does & does not reappear' doesn't apply. 'Neither reappears nor does not reappear' doesn't apply.

"Any feeling... Any perception... Any mental fabrication...

"Any consciousness by which one describing the Tathagata [the aggregate of consciousness] would describe him: That the Tathagata has abandoned, its root destroyed, made like a palmyra stump, deprived of the conditions of development, not destined for future arising. Freed from the classification of consciousness, Vaccha, the Tathagata [the unestablished consciousness] is deep, boundless, hard to fathom, like the sea. 'Reappears' doesn't apply. 'Does not reappear' doesn't apply. 'Both does & does not reappear' doesn't apply. 'Neither reappears nor does not reappear' doesn't apply."

[please note: the "fire" burned out here refers to the release from the five aggregates This sutta actually conveys the same meaning as the other cited suttas: "... then owing to the abandonment of passion, the support is cut off, and there is no base for consciousness. Consciousness, thus unestablished, not proliferating, not performing any function, is released." "where there is no delight, no craving, then consciousness does not land there or grow. Where consciousness does not land or grow, name-&-form does not alight. Where name-&-form does not alight, there is no growth of fabrications. Where there is no growth of fabrications, there is no production of renewed becoming in the future..."].

[Unestablished consciousness = viññāṇaṃ anidassanaṃ" = consciousness (is) non-indicative [of fabrications] = consciousness [is] ceased [no fabrications, no defilements] = living arahant’s consciousness = nibbana].

It's probably better for us to have a more complete understanding of such different designations of important words in their respective contexts in the suttas to avoid biased views, misunderstandings and confusions.

In addition to Matheesha's comments: if one thinks there's no dhamma outside of the 5 aggregates, one would not enter the stream.If one regards nibbana as the complete cessation of sankharas (including awareness) during this very life, and practice such complete cessations as the path to nibbana instead of the cessation of the kamma producing volitional formations (desires/cravings) which will end the future rebirth, and consequently, the complete stilling/cessation of all conditioned phenomena (sankharas) at the death of an arahant, one would not enter the stream either, because of the wrong path to nibbana. :)

Your kind concern and effort to help is most appreciated. Please correct me if I'm wrong. Metta to all,

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Re: The way to Nirvana

Postby Alex123 » Mon May 09, 2011 5:18 pm

Hello Starter, all,

Viññāṇaṃ anidassanaṃ is included in viññāṇa khandha (which will cease):
"Any consciousness whatsoever that is past, future, or present; internal or external; blatant or subtle; common or sublime; far or near: every consciousness is to be seen as it actually is with right discernment as: 'This is not mine. This is not my self. This is not what I am.'
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... .than.html



Re: Viññāṇaṃ anidassanaṃ in DN11
In DN11 quote if one looks carefully, there are two questions and two answers to the questions of:
Q #1 Where do water, earth, fire, & wind have no footing?
Q #2 Where are long & short, coarse & fine, fair & foul, name & form brought to an end?

Q1) Where do water, earth, fire, & wind have no footing?
A1) Consciousness without endless comparison, and radiant everywhere, Here water, earth, fire, & wind have no footing.

Q2) Where are long & short, coarse & fine, fair & foul, name & form brought to an end?
A2) Here long & short coarse & fine fair & foul, name & form are all brought to an end. With the cessation of consciousness each is here brought to an end.'"

There is absolutely no reason to believe that Viññāṇa remains in Nibbāna, and DN11 clearly states that consciousness ceases.

Please note the addition that Ven.TB has made in that quote to alter the meaning:
"With the cessation of [the aggregate of] consciousness each is here brought to an end"

The phrase clearly states that ALL consciousness ceases.



Remember that ALL things are dukkha. To posit something that remains eternally is only to posit an eternally existent dukkha and according to MN22 there isn’t anything that is permanent and everlasting not subject to change. The talk on ANY kind of existence in Nibbāna betrays one's wish for eternal survival, even if it survival in some unexplained non-dual luminious form that cannot be described in words.


MN72 clearly states parinibbāna of Arahant is like flame going out. In fact the words extinguished is the same as word for Nibbāna. Just like
extinguished flame doesn't become the whole world, same is with Arahant.


The metaphors for nibbāna is a flame going out that is simply reckoned as 'out' (nibbuto)

"If the fire burning in front of you were to go out (nibbāyeyya), would you know that, 'This fire burning in front of me has gone out (nibbuto)'?"
"...yes..."
"And suppose someone were to ask you, 'This fire that has gone out in front of you, in which direction from here has it gone? East? West? North? Or south?'
Thus asked, how would you reply?"

"That doesn't apply, Master Gotama. Any fire burning dependent on a sustenance of grass and timber, being unnourished — from having consumed that sustenance and not being offered any other — is classified simply as 'out' (unbound)."

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... .than.html


The Buddha has said that "Nothing is worth attaching to" (sabbe dhammā nālaṃ abhinivesāyāti). This also means that one should not attach to "consciousness without feature". It is a Hindu teaching that while ABC is impermanent, but something else is permanent (even if permanent in some indescribable condition). As long as one clings to something, then full nibbidā and virāga cannot be achieved, and thus no liberation is possible (one is still tied to something). The properties of "consciousness without feature" that somehow survives in Nibbāna is simply the idea of Self (Atta) dressed up in other words, similar to wrong view #8 in Brahmajala Sutta. Without attaching to viññāṇaṃ anidassanaṃ, its cessation will not in any way be considered as suffering or personal loss.
"Life is a struggle. Life will throw curveballs at you, it will humble you, it will attempt to break you down. And just when you think things are starting to look up, life will smack you back down with ruthless indifference..."

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Re: The way to Nirvana

Postby kirk5a » Mon May 09, 2011 5:36 pm

"When one thing is practiced & pursued, ignorance is abandoned, clear knowing arises, the conceit 'I am' is abandoned, latent tendencies are uprooted, fetters are abandoned. Which one thing? Mindfulness immersed in the body." -AN 1.230

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kirk5a
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Re: The way to Nirvana

Postby kirk5a » Mon May 09, 2011 5:42 pm

"When one thing is practiced & pursued, ignorance is abandoned, clear knowing arises, the conceit 'I am' is abandoned, latent tendencies are uprooted, fetters are abandoned. Which one thing? Mindfulness immersed in the body." -AN 1.230


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