I’ve never thought about that or studied Patanjali - I wouldn't speculate on the time period, or who came first.
What I’m saying is something quite well-known in Buddhism – the Buddha used terms in everyday use and gave them new specific meanings. The Buddha rejected relying on Vedas for salvation, which included the earliest Upanishads. He redefined Indian cosmology, utilising the same language of the time in teaching people, but the meaning he gave to these same terms can be very different.
Thanissaro Bhikkhu says:
‘’The Buddha's Awakening gave him, among other things, a new perspective on the uses and limitations of words. He had discovered a reality — the Deathless — that no words could describe. At the same time, he discovered that the path to Awakening could be described, although it involved a new way of seeing and conceptualizing the problem of suffering and stress. Because ordinary concepts were often poor tools for teaching the path, he had to invent new concepts and to stretch pre-existing words to encompass those concepts so that others could taste Awakening themselves.
One of the new concepts most central to his teaching was that of the khandhas, which are most frequently translated into English as "aggregates." Prior to the Buddha, the Pali word khandha had very ordinary meanings: A khandha could be a pile, a bundle, a heap, a mass. It could also be the trunk of a tree. In his first sermon, though, the Buddha gave it a new, psychological meaning, introducing the term "clinging-khandhas" to summarize his analysis of the truth of stress and suffering. Throughout the remainder of his teaching career, he referred to these psychological khandhas time and again. Their importance in his teachings has thus been obvious to every generation of Buddhists ever since. ………’’http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/auth ... andha.html
Bhante Sujato says:
The word sati, which we translate ‘mindfulness’, means ‘memory’, and was originally used by Brahmans in the sense of memorized Vedic scriptures. To effectively recall large bodies of text, you get into a zone of clarity and presence, free of distractions. This was one of the influences in developing what we today call ‘meditation’.
The Buddha adopted this Brahmanical usage, and used sati to for both ‘memory’ (of texts) and ‘presence of mind’ in meditation.http://sujato.wordpress.com/2011/01/18/ ... ndfulness/
Ven. K. Sri Dhammananda says:
He gave His own rational and scientific interpretation to all the philosophical terms before they were used in His teaching of the Dhamma. For instance, Kamma which only denoted action prior to the Buddha, was given a new meaning as volition behind the action.http://www.purifymind.com/Introduction.htm