Sixth in the sutras list of ten paramita excerpts is Wisdom:
According to the Sutra of the Jewel Cloud, a Bodhisattva can achieve the
wisdom paramita by accomplishing ten things (T160659, 0249b17–0250b9).
First, he understands the truth that dharmas have no selves, which means
that he observes the five aggregates, which constitute a sentient being, and sees
that none of them can be captured.
Second, he understands karmic requital, which means that he sees that, like
a mirage or the moon in the water, karmic requital has no self-essence. Although
ordinary beings question who is the recipient of karmic requital if a person has
within himself no self, no human, no sentient being, and no everlasting soul, he
knows that karma brings its requital in due time.
Third, he understands samskrta dharmas, which means that he sees that
dharmas dependent upon causes and conditions are impermanent, like morning
dew, which disappears upon sunrise. Therefore, he is not attached to them.
Fourth, he understands the continuation of birth and death, which means
that he sees that sentient beings are ignorant of the truth. Fettered by their love
of being, they do good and evil karmas, and undergo repeated birth and death in
the Three Realms of Existence.
Fifth, he understands how to end repeated birth and death, which means
that by ending ignorance, one gives up evil actions and love of sense objects. If
one does not grasp sense objects, one does not trigger the karmic force for being.
Then one ends one’s karmic rebirth and the ensuing old age and death.
Sixth, he understands the Two Vehicles, which means that he knows the
four voice-hearer fruits and Pratyekabuddhahood. However, he chooses not to
follow their paths because he wants to rescue sentient beings from their
Seventh, he understands the Mahayana, which means that he studies the
sutras and the regulations instituted by the Buddha. As he trains accordingly, he
does not see the subject, the object, or his action.
Eighth, he knows how to ward off mara enterprise, which means that he
shuns evil masters, their wrong views, their practices, and their communities.
Ninth, he has undistorted wisdom, which means that he does not embrace
the wrong views but follows the Buddha’s teachings in order to benefit sentient
beings. As he imparts worldly knowledge and skills to sentient beings, his
purpose is to guide them into the superb Buddha Dharma.
Tenth, he has unparalleled wisdom, which means that his wisdom is
unrivaled by that of riders of the Two Vehicles and sentient beings, such as gods,
asuras, maras, and non-Buddhists.