Phases of Gandhara Civilization from: Samad, Rafi-us. The Grandeur of Gandhara: The Ancient Buddhist Civilization of the Swat, Peshawar, Kabul and Indus Valleys. Algora Publishing, 2011.
Yogacara Dates: From: Florin Deleanu, The Chapter on the Mundane Path (Laukikamārga) in the Śrāvakabhūmi: A Trilingual Edition (Sanskrit, Tibetan, Chinese), Annotated Translation, and Introductory Study. Tokyo: The International Institute of Buddhist Studies, 2006.
Embryonic 535 − 317 BCE Achaemenid
Transient 317 BCE − 60 CE Mauryan
Asoka 298-232 BCE
Menander 165-135 BCE
Mature 60 − 463 CE Kushan
ca. 1st century C.E.: Earliest traces of a tradition of
Beginning of the compilation of meditation treatises and manuals.
ca. 100: Saṅgharakṣa composes the *Yogācārabhūmi.
Doctrines of the Yogācāras are attested in the Abhidharma- mahā-vibhāṣa.(compiled ca. 150-200).
Kujula Kadphises 60−80 CE
Vima Taku 81-100 CE
Vima Kadphises 101-127 CE
ca. 100: Aśvaghoṣa composes the Saundarananda and the Buddhacarita
Kanishka I 128-150 CE
An Shigao translates into Chinese extracts from the *Yogācārabhūmi, i.e., the Dao di jing, sometime between ca. 148 and 168.
Vasishka 151-155 CE
Huvishka 155-190 CE
Vasudeva 190-220 CE
ca. 200-270: Compilation of the Śrāvakabhūmi - (phase I).
Kanishka II 221-230 CE
ca. 230-300: Compilation of the Bodhisattvabhūmi - (phase II).
Sassanians conquered Western Gandhara
Minor Kushan Rulers 230-350 CE
ca. 270-340: Compilation of the rest of the Maulyo bhūmayaḥ, and in parallel with it, compilation of the Vastusaṁgrahaṇī(the earliest textual unit of this phase)
as well as of the Vyākhyāsaṁgrahaṇī and the Paryāyasaṁgrahaṇī (phase III ).
Dharmarākṣa renders the entire text of Saṅgharakṣa’s *Yogācārabhūmi into Chinese, i.e., the Xiuxing dao di jing, in 284.
ca. 300-350: Compilation of the Saṃdhinirmocana-sūtra
ca. 320-350: Compilation of the early parts of the
Viniścayasaṁgrahaṇī (phase V).
330 CE Asaṅga born
350 CE Vasubandhu born
ca. 350-380: Compilation of the late parts oft he Viniścayasaṁgrahaṇī, including the citation of the Saṃdhinirmocana-sūtra, and the final redaction of the Yogācārabhūmi (Asaṅga's participation in this process?), consisting in additions, interpolations, cross-references, etc. (phase VI).
ca. 380-390: Vasubandhu composes the Abhidharma-kośa- bhāṣya sometime between or around these dates.
ca. 400: Vasubandhu composes the Pratītyasāmutpādavyākhāra
Vajraṛṣi (sometime between ca. 390-410?) was given the Abhidharma-kośa-bhāṣya
405 CE Asaṅga died
418: Dharmakrṣema translates into Chinese the *Bodhisattvabhūmyādhāra (which already contains references to other parts of the Yogācārabhūmi).
430 CE Vasubandhu died
443 CE Gunabhadra translates the Laṅkâvatāra-sūtra into Chinese (2 passages depend on Vasubandhu’s Triṁśikā.)
Decline 463 − 1025 CE Ephthalite/ White Huns
463 CE (anti buddhist)